# Carbon and Its Compounds Alkane

These notes are based on the chapter Carbon and its Compounds from class 10 science of NCERT book and CBSE syllabus.

- General formula of alkane
- Structural Formulae of methane to decane

Hydrocarbons having only single bonds are known as alkane. These are saturated hydrocarbons. Alkane are also known as **paraffin**.

## General Formula of Alkane

**C _{n}H_{2n+2}**

### Methane

If C = 1, then, C_{n}H_{2n+2} = C_{1}H_{2 × 1 + 2} = CH_{4}

Name of this compound is methane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

### Ethane

If C = 2, then, C_{n}H_{2n+2} = C_{2}H_{2 × 2 + 2} = C_{2}H_{6}

Name of this compound is ethane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

Structural formula of ethane can also be written as CH_{3}CH_{3} or CH_{3} − CH_{3}

### Propane

If C = 3, then, C_{n}H_{2n+2} = C_{3}H_{2 × 3 + 2} = C_{3}H_{8}

Name of this compound is propane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

### Butane

Structural formula of propane can also be written as CH_{3}CH_{2}CH_{3} or CH_{3} − CH_{2} − CH_{3}

If C = 4, then, C_{n}H_{2n+2} = C_{4}H_{2 × 4 + 2} = C_{4}H_{10}

Name of this compound is butane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

Structural formula of propane can also be written as CH_{3}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{3} or CH_{3} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{3}

### Pentane

If C = 5, then, C_{n}H_{2n+2} = C_{5}H_{2 × 5 + 2} = C_{5}H_{12}

Name of this compound is pentane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

Structural formula of pentane can also be written as CH_{3}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{3} or CH_{3} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{3}

### Hexane

If C = 6, then, C_{n}H_{2n+2} = C_{6}H_{2 × 6 + 2} = C_{6}H_{14}

Name of this compound is hexane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

Structural formula of hexane can also be written as CH_{3}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{3} or CH_{3} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{3}

### Heptane

If C = 7, then, C_{n}H_{2n+2} = C_{7}H_{2 × 7 + 2} = C_{7}H_{16}

Name of this compound is heptane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

Structural formula of heptane can also be written as CH_{3}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{3} or CH_{3} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{3}

### Octane

If C = 8, then, C_{n}H_{2n+2} = C_{8}H_{2 × 8 + 2} = C_{8}H_{18}

Name of this compound is octane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

Structural formula of octane can also be written as CH_{3}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{3} or CH_{3} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{3}

### Nonane

If C = 9, then, C_{n}H_{2n+2} = C_{9}H_{2 × 9 + 2} = C_{9}H_{20}

Name of this compound is nonane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

Structural formula of nonane can also be written as CH_{3}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{3} or CH_{3} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{3}

### Decane

If C = 10, then, C_{n}H_{2n+2} = C_{10}H_{2 × 10 + 2} = C_{10}H_{22}

Name of this compound is decane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

Structural formula of decane can also be written as CH_{3}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{2}CH_{3} or CH_{3} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{2} − CH_{3}

- Methane: CH
_{4} - Ethane: C
_{2}H_{6} - Propane: C
_{3}H_{8} - Butane: C
_{4}H_{10} - Pentane: C
_{5}H_{12} - Hexane: C
_{6}H_{14} - Heptane: C
_{7}H_{16} - Octane: C
_{8}H_{18} - Nonane: C
_{9}H_{20} - Decane: C
_{10}H_{22}

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