Class 10 Chemistry



Carbon and Its Compounds

Organic Compounds

Initially, compounds of carbon could only be obtained from living sources and there was no way of synthesizing them. Hence, carbon compounds are also known as organic compounds. Carbon forms a large number of compounds. So far, formulae of about 3 million carbon compounds are known.

Cause of formation of such a large number of compounds by carbon:

  • Carbon can form bonds with other carbon atoms. This property of carbon is known as CATENATION. Because of catenation, carbon can form a long chain; while making bond with other carbon atoms. Carbon can make single, double and triple bonds by catenation.
  • Carbon can form bonds with other carbon atoms. This property of carbon is known as CATENATION. Because of catenation, carbon can form a long chain; while making bond with other carbon atoms. Carbon can make single, double and triple bonds by catenation.
  • Carbon can form branched chain; along with straight chain; while combining with carbon atoms, i.e. because of the property of catenation.

Example:

formation of chains by carbon atoms

Carbon can also form bonds with other types of monovalent atoms; apart from carbon. Carbon can make long chain combining with other atoms also. For example; carbon can form bonds with oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, etc.

formation of carbon bond with other atoms radicals

Carbon-carbon bonds are very stable, which makes the compounds of carbon stable.

Hydrocarbon:

(Hydrogen + Carbon = Hydrocarbon) Compounds formed because of the combination of hydrogen and carbon are known as hydrocarbons. There are two types of hydrocarbon, viz. saturated hydrocarbon and unsaturated hydrocarbon.

Saturated hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbons having single bonds are known as SATURATED HYDROCARBONS. Saturated hydrocarbons are known as ALKANE. These are also known as paraffin. Example: Methane, Ethane, Propane, etc.

Unsaturated hydrocarbon: Unsaturated hydrocarbons are of two types – Hydrocarbon with double bond and hydrocarbon with triple bond.

Hydrocarbon with double bond: Hydrocarbons having at least one double bond are known as ALKENE. Example: Ethylene, Propylene, Butylene, etc.

Hydrocarbon with triple bond: Hydrocarbons having at least one triple bond are known as ALKYNE. Example: Ethyne, Propyne, Butyne, etc.

Alkane

ALKANE: Hydrocarbons having only single bonds are known as alkane. These are saturated hydrocarbons. Alkane are also known as paraffin. The general formula of alkane is CnH2n+2

If C = 1, then; CnH2n+2 = C1H2x1+2 = CH4

Name of this compound is methane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

structural formula methane

If C = 2, then; CnH2n+2 = C2H2x2+2 = C2H6

Name of this compound is ethane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

structural formula ethane

Structural formula of ethane can also be written as CH3CH3 or CH3 − CH3

If C = 3, then; CnH2n+2 = C3H2x3+2 = C3H8

Name of this compound is propane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

structural formula propane

Structural formula of propane can also be written as CH3CH2CH3 or CH3 − CH2 − CH3

If C = 4, then; CnH2n+2 = C4H2x4+2 = C4H10

Name of this compound is butane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

structural formula butane

Structural formula of propane can also be written as CH3CH2CH2CH3 or CH3 − CH2 − CH2 − CH3


If C = 5, then; CnH2n+2 = C5H2x5+2 = C5H12

Name of this compound is pentane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

structural formula pentane

Structural formula of pentane can also be written as CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 or CH3 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH3

If C = 6, then; CnH2n+2 = C6H2x6+2 = C6H14

Name of this compound is hexane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

structural formula hexane

Structural formula of hexane can also be written as CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 or CH3 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH3


If C = 7, then; CnH2n+2 = C7H2x7+2 = C7H16

Name of this compound is heptane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

structural formula heptane

Structural formula of heptane can also be written as CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 or CH3 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH3

If C = 8, then; CnH2n+2 = C8H2x8+2 = C8H18

Name of this compound is octane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

structural formula octane

Structural formula of octane can also be written as CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 or CH3 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH3

If C = 9, then; CnH2n+2 = C9H2x9+2 = C9H20

Name of this compound is nonane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

structural formula nonane

Structural formula of nonane can also be written as CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 or CH3 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH3

If C = 10, then; CnH2n+2 = C10H2x10+2 = C10H22

Name of this compound is decane. It can be shown by following structural formula:

structural formula decane

Structural formula of decane can also be written as CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 or CH3 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH2 − CH3

Saturated Hydrocarbons (Alkane)
Name No. of carbon atoms Formula
Methane 1 CH4
Ethane 2 C2H6
Propane 3 C3H8
Butane 4 C4H10
Pentane 5 C5H12
Hexane 6 C6H14
Heptane 7 C7H16
Octane 8 C8H18
Nonane 9 C9H20
Decane 10 C10H22


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Carbon: Intro

Alkene & Alkyne

Nomenclature

Nomenclature 2

Chemical Properties

NCERT Intext Solution

NCERT Intext Solution-2

NCERT Exercise Solution

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