Question 33: Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follow:
Source 1: Religious Reform and Public Debates
There were intense controversies between social and religious reformers and the Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation, monotheism, brahmanical priesthood and idolatry. In Bengal, as the debate developed, tracts and newspapers proliferated, circulating a variety of arguments.
Source 2: New Forms of Publication
New literary forms also entered the world of reading lyrics, short stories, essays about social and political matters. In different ways, they reinforced the new emphasis on human lives and intimate feelings, about the political and social rules that shaped such things.
Source 3: Women and Print
Since social reforms and novels had already created a great interest in women’s lives and emotions, there was also an interest in what women have to say about their own lives.
Source 1: (33.1) Evaluate how did the print shape the nature of the debate in the early nineteenth century in India. (1)
Answer: Print helped in providing more information and diverse views on religious and social topics and thus helped in shaping the debate in the early nineteenth century in India.
Source 2: (33.2) To what extent do you agree that print opened up new worlds of experience and gave a vivid sense of diversity of human lives? (2)
Answer: People could get to know about people from other parts of the country and the world, because of flow of information facilitated by print. So, a person from north India could understand about the culture of a person from south India. It can be said that print opened up new worlds of experience and gave a vivid sense of diversity of human lives in a great way.
Source 3: (33.3) To what extent did the print culture reflect a great interest in women’s lives and emotions. Explain. (2)
Answer: Earlier, a woman’s world was limited to the confines of her kitchen and home. Women had no means to share their lives and emotions. Print helped in developing many women authors. Even some male authors started to write about women’s live. Thus, print culture started to reflect a great interest in women’s lives and emotions in significant way.
Question 34: How is the criterion used by UNDP different from the World Bank for measuring the development of a country? Explain.
Answer: Per Capita Income is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries. Economists agree that income is not the only factor to improve the quality of life. There are many other factors which affect the development, e.g. infant mortality rate, literacy level, healthcare, etc. Hence, it can be said that the criterion used by the World Bank has its own limitations.
UNDP uses many other factors which affect the quality of life. This gives due to weight to other criteria; like infant mortality, healthcare, school enrolment, etc. So, the UNDP looks at those factors which help in improving the quality of life and helps in making the citizens more productive.
The example of Kerala and Punjab illustrates this in a good way. In spite of being the richest state, Punjab shows a very high child mortality rate compared to Kerala. The net attendance ratio of children in classes 1 to 4 and literacy rate are higher in Kerala; as compared to Punjab. This explains the significantly higher child mortality rate in Punjab. Bihar is fairing badly against all parameters which speaks about its poor record on Human Development Index.
Question 35 (a) Two places A and B are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them.
Question 35 (b) On the same outline map of India, locate and label any four of the following with appropriate symbols:
Following questions are for the visually impaired candidates only in lieu of Q. No. 35. Attempt any six questions (1 × 6 = 6)
Answer: (a) Bihar, (b) West Bengal, (c) Amritsar, (d) Kerala, (e) Maharashtra, (f) Surat and Gandhinagar, (g) Goa, (h) Tamil Nadu
Copyright © excellup 2014